Knowledge is power.
Breaking Down Common Medical Cannabis Terminology
Cannabis is a complicated plant, and there are a number of terms that may not look familiar to those newer to cannabis treatment.
2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol): an endocannabinoid abundant within the central nervous system.
7-hydroxy-CBD: the metabolite produced by liver metabolism of CBD.
11-hydroxy-THC: the metabolite produced by liver metabolism of THC that has 2-4 times more psychoactivity potency relative to THC.
Anandamide: an endogenous cannabinoid that regulates feeding and suckling behavior, along with baseline pain levels and sleep patterns.
Beta-Caryophyllene: it is the only terpene known to also act as a cannabinoid. Expect aromas of spice, wood, and pepper with this terpene; as it is commonly found in black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and thai basil. Potential effects include: calming, focus, and elevated mood.
Bioavailability: the portion of cannabis dose that can be absorbed.
Blood/Brain Barrier: a barrier consisting of cells that prevent bacteria and large or water-loving molecules from crossing into the central nervous system.
Cannabichromene (CBC): is a nonintoxicating cannabinoid. CBC has anti-inflammatory properties, and may help alleviate a variety of symptoms related to your qualifying condition.
Cannabidiol (CBD): non-psychoactive cannabinoid, the second most common cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA): the acidic form of CBD that is naturally produced by the plant; once activated, CBDA converts to CBD.
Cannabidivarin (CBDVA): CBDV is the propyl variant of CBD.
Cannabigerol (CBG): non-psychoactive cannabinoid that serves as the precursor used by the plant's enzymes to produce THC and CBD. CBG is ideal for daytime use due to its uplifting effects.
Cannabinoids: compounds that activate the cannabinoid receptors, including endocannabinoids produced by humans and animals, phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis and a few other plants, and synthetic cannabinoids.
Cannabinol (CBN): is the result of degraded THC. CBN can be created naturally as a cannabis plant matures or has increased heat/oxygen. Although CBN can be utilized any time of day, it is ideal for many night-time users due to its potential calming, relaxing, and sleepy effects.
Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome: an uncommon condition affecting a small population of cannabis users characterized by nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain that can be alleviated by abstinence from cannabis.
CB1 Receptor: cannabinoid receptor primarily located in the central nervous system that is activated by cannabinoids.
CB2 Receptor: a cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the peripheral tissues of the immune system, the gastrointestinal system, the peripheral nervous system, and to a lesser degree in the central nervous system.
Endocannabinoid System: a system of neuromodulator chemicals and their receptors throughout the body involved in the regulation of appetite, pain, mood, and memory.
Farnesene: terpene known for promoting head clarity and focus. Aside from cannabis, you can find this terpene in apples, oranges, and tumeric. Strains rich in Farnesene give aromas of fresh green apples!
Humulene: This terpene is commonly found in hops, basil, cloves, and coriander, which gives off aromas of hops, earthiness, and wood. Users may experience potential calming and uplifting effects.
Limonene: This terpene boasts smells of fruit, citrus, lemon and oranges. Aside from cannabis, you can find limonene in fruit rinds, Juniper, Rosemary and Peppermint. Potential effects may include increased energy, improved focus, and elevated mood.
Linalool: terpene is known for promoting relaxation and calming effects. This terpene smells floral, clean, and sweet. Aside from cannabis, you can find Linalool in lavender, laurel, and rosewood.
Microdosing: a technique for employing the minimum effective dose of cannabis medicine that delivers the desired outcome or level of effect.
Myrcene: terpene known for promoting calming effects, relaxation, and sleep. The aroma is musky, herbal, and earthy. Aside from cannabis, you can find Myrcene in hops, lemongrass, thyme, and mango. >0.5% Myrcene by weight may produce “indica” (relaxing) effects, while strains <0.5% Myrcene by weight may produce “sativa” (energizing) effects and hybrids should be in the middle.
Ocimene: terpene known for uplifting and calming effects. Ocimene gives off sweet, herbal, and woodsy aromas. Aside from cannabis, it is found in mint, parsley, pepper, and kumquats.
Phytocannabinoid: term for the cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant and a few other plant species.
Pinene: terpene known for promoting alertness while counteracting some effects of THC. Pinene gives off pine, herbal, and woodsy aromas, as it is also found in pine needles, basil, rosemary, and dill. More potential effects include improved focus, energy, uplifting.
Plant Growth Regulators (PGR): synthetic plant hormones regulate plant growth, some of which may be harmful to humans.
Psychoactivity: the measure of how cannabis and other drugs affect the mind, mood, or other mental states.
Receptor Downregulation: the decrease in the number of receptors available to a cannabinoid molecule, which reduces the sensitivity to cannabinoid effects and underlies the buildup of tolerance.
Sublingual: taken and absorbed beneath the tongue.
Terpenes: volatile hydrocarbons found in the essential oils produced by many plants, including cannabis; cannabis terpenes provide unique medical benefits that give a strain its "personality."
Terpinolene: terpene known for providing uplifting effects. Terpinolene gives off piney, herbal, and floral aromas; as it is commonly found in lilacs, nutmeg, cumin, and apples. Potential effects may include: promoting sleep, calm, and relaxation.
Tetreahydrocannabinol (THC) or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: the principal cannabinoid of the cannabis plant, responsible for much of cannabis' psychoactivity.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV): is a unique non-intoxicating compound in cannabis that provides a variety of medical benefits. THCV is most commonly found in Sativa strains.
General Medical Cannabis Terms
Agitation: the process of breaking off and harvesting trichomes from the cannabis flower through physical contact.
Alcohol Extraction: the process of stripping the essential oils and trichomes from the cannabis plant by using either ethyl or isopropyl alcohol (i.e. tinctures).
Auto-Buddering: the process of shatter or taffy changing consistency into a budder form.
Blasting: the process of creating hash oil by passing a solvent (butane, propane, CO2) through plant material.
Bud(s): synonym for the flower of the mature cannabis plants.
Budder: a cannabis concentrate that is similar to wax but softer and more pliable.
Butane Hash Oil (BHO): cannabis flowers are blasted with butane; the resulting product is a viscous resin known as "wax" or "shatter" and is very potent.
Cannabinoids: the chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant that offers a variety of health benefits; THC & CBD are the most common. Learn more about cannabinoids.
Cannabis: a genus of flowering plants that includes Cannabis ruderalis, Cannabis sativa, and Cannabis indica.
Chemotype: a term of a plant type - including cannabis - that produces a distinct combination of chemical compounds.
Clone: a marijuana plant clipping that can be planted and grown, creating a genetic copy of the mother.
CO2 Extraction: the process of pressurizing liquid or gas CO2 to its "Super Critical" state; the waxes, oils and cannabinoids will be stripped away without damage or denaturing, creating a similar product to BHO but less viscous and more oily.
Cola: the top flower cluster of a female cannabis plant.
Combustion: the process of burning cannabis material; combustion occurs when smoking flower. *Smoking or combustion of cannabis products is strictly prohibited in the OMMCP.*
Concentrates: any type of cannabis product that is refined from flowers into a more purified and potent form; can include to any form of hash (pressed hash or water hash), kief, or hash oil (CO2, BHO, shatter, budder, wax, etc.).
Cross (short for Crossbreeding): when multiple cannabis plants are bred to produce a new strain; the new crossbred strain will have traits from both parent plants.
Cultivar: a plant variety produced in cultivation through select breeding.
Cure: the process of aging dried cannabis flower in order to expose and balance the medicinal compounds of the flower; increases potency and develops the flavor/aroma.
Edibles: cannabis-infused products that are consumed orally; edibles are digested versus inhaled, which metabolizes
THC differently often resulting in more intense and elongated effects.
Dabber: a long tool (similar to dental equipment) used to touch the concentrate to the vaporizer; it is typically made out of metal or glass and helps the user consume product without making a mess or risk getting hurt.
Dabbing: a common term used when referring to the process of medicating with concentrates.
Dab: a term that refers to a smaller quantity of concentrate; also can be considered a "single dose."
Decarboxylate: the process of heating cannabis at a low temperature to transform "inactive" acid cannabinoids like THCA and CBDA into "active" THC and CBD; decarboxylated, or "activated," products can be eaten (i.e. edibles & consumables).
Dewaxing: the process of removing waxes and lipid fats from concentrates to create a purer, more stable product (typically for shatter).
Dry Sift (Dry Sieve Hash): extraction method that splits trichomes from the cannabis plant, most typically with a mesh screen.
FECO: Full Extract Cannabis Oil is a highly concentrated, whole-plant extract that is known to provide one of the broadest spectrums of terpenes and cannabinoids available.
Flowers: refer to the hairy, often sticky bud or parts of the plant that are harvested and used to consume in a variety of cannabis products.
Fresh Frozen: plant matter that has been cryogenically frozen immediately after harvest, preserving terpenes and the other phytochemical properties of the living plant.
Full Melt: a concentrate (hash) that bubbles and melts at the slightest application of heat.
Genotype: specific characteristics of a plant, the expression of which is controlled by genes.
Grinder: a circular metal, steel or wood device used to breakdown cannabis.
Hash/Hash Oil: the gathering of trichomes via a dry sieve or water extraction method, which end product can be pressed and consumed; this powder is potent and contains high levels of cannabinoids.
HCFSE: short for high-cannabinoid full spectrum extract; created through hydrocarbon extraction with an emphasis on cannabinoid preservation.
Hemp: comes from Cannabis sativa - the same plant as cannabis - but only contains a small amount of THC (less than 0.3%); hemp is now federally legal.
HTFSE: short for high-terpene full spectrum extract; created through hydrocarbon extraction with an emphasis on terpene preservation.
Hybrid: one of the three classifications of cannabis; is a cross between two genetically different strains of cannabis; can be 50/50, Sativa-dominant, or Indica-dominant.
Hydrocarbon Extraction: extraction methods that typically utilize hydrocarbons like butane, propane, pentane or hexane.
Hydroponics: popular growing method that circulates water and nutrients to plant roots which allows one to have more control over the grow process.
Ice Wax: an extremely fine hash, known for being extracted through water; it differs from normal hash due to its cooling process that utilizes ice and "fresh-frozen" material.
Indica: one of the three classifications of cannabis; plants are typically shorter and bushier plants with wide leaves compared to Sativa; generally effects are on the body and produce sedated feelings, preferred for nighttime use.
Jelly Hash: a potent mixture of bubble hash/water hash and hash oil; it is made by mixing hash oil with water hash under heat and is known for its jelly-like consistency.
Kief: the result of separating trichomes from the cannabis plant; holds the most amounts of cannabinoids, making it potent and a very pure form of concentrate.
Live Resin: fresh-frozen plants are typically used in BHO extractions.
Marijuana: we prefer the term cannabis due to marijuana's history of racial abuse; marijuana is the broad word for the cannabis plant and its flower (and resulting products).
Micron Grade: refers to the micron bag used to collect trichomes during bubble hash production; different sized micron bags (i.e. 70u, 90u, 120u) allow different sized trichome heads to collect.
Mother Plant: a cannabis plant kept in a vegetative state (not allowed to flower) so that clones may be taken to produce more plants identical to the mother.
Nug-run: a term that describes a processed cannabis product that was extracted using cannabis nugs rather than trim.
Oil: shortened term for hash oil; a form of cannabis extract that can be vaporized or infused.
Phenotype: a term used to successfully identify a plant's inherent traits; growers can make a specific strain based on those preferred characteristics.
Pheno-hunt: the process of a cultivator growing a number of phenotypes of a particular strain to identify the cultivar to keep and continue growing.
PPM: parts per million, the standard measurement of residual solvents, as well as other contaminants such as mold and pesticides.
Pressed Hash: made from compressed resin glands (trichomes) after the initial extraction period.
Purging: the process of removing residual solvent from a concentrate.
Reclaim: residual concentrate that is collected after dabbing.
Residual Solvent: any remaining solvent contained within a concentrate post-extraction and purging.
Sativa: one of the three classifications of cannabis; plants are typically tall and thin plants with narrow leaves, and is generally a lighter shade of green compared to the Indica plant; general effects are on the head and produce stimulating feelings, preferred for daytime use.
Sauce: sometimes called "Terp Sauce," refers to a runny, terpene-rich concentrate; sometimes labelled HTSFE or high-terpene full-spectrum extract.
Shatter: a type of concentrate that is created through an extraction process that eliminates fats and lipids; typically transparent and easily breaks into fragments.
Solvent: a liquid in which something is dissolved to form a solution; in extraction, solvents are used to separate the phytochemical properties from the cannabis flower.
Solvent-Free: a term used to describe a hydrocarbon extraction that has been fully cleansed of all residual solvent; Solvent-free has 0 ppm residual solvent, but was still originally a solvent-based extraction.
Strain: also known as a cultivar, is a particular kind of cannabis plant that is isolated to increase certain traits of the plant and named to reflect the complexity of the plant's specific and unique characteristics.
Sugaring: a shift in the consistency of cannabis concentrates that have not been dewaxed; exposure to heat, light and air can cause spontaneous nucleation of cannabinoids, subsequently purging some terpenes, lipids and waxes.
Terpene: the chemical compounds found in cannabis that produce the distinct flavor and smell of the flower; terpenes are accountable for the hundreds of variances between strains including flavor and smell. Terpenes are so sensitive to low temperatures, it is imperative to keep cannabis in cooler settings.*
Vape Pen: a vaporizer pen is a smaller, often portable version of a regular vaporizer; some vape pens have chambers for product while others use pre-filled cartridges.
Vaporization: a process in cannabis consumption that uses moderate heat to chemically change a solid-form concentrate into an inhalable vapor; all concentrates and flower in Ohio must be vaporized.
Vaporizer: a device that is designed to heat cannabis like an oven; vaporizers will heat flower or oils to a very specific temperature that activates the cannabinoids and terpenes and turns them into vapor to be inhaled; many believe that vaporizing is healthier than smoking.
Water Hash: also known as Ice Water Hash or Bubble Hash, is a specific technique to separate trichomes to isolate the resin; ice water separation is a cleaner method that doesn't involve other solvents and allows for a more refined hash.
Wax: concentrated form of cannabis that is created when the plant is dissolved into a solvent; considered to be a lot more potent than flower.
Waxes & Lipids: natural occurring substances found within the cannabis plant; waxes and lipids are often removed during dewaxing.
Whole Plant: usually extracted as fresh frozen to extract all the "live" terpenes and cannabinoids.
Winterization: a more thorough form of dewaxing that uses a secondary solvent (typically ethanol) to help purge wax and lipid materials; ideal for longer preservation, but at the loss of flavor and full-spectrum effect.